FAQ’s

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Lawns

Q.  I just moved to a new house.  I have no idea how to take care of the lawn.
A:  The aggieturf website http://aggieturf.tamu.edu/answers4you/index.htm has more information that you probably want about lawn care, including selection, establishment, fertilization, watering, etc.  Since you are not familiar with the soil, first get the soil tested.  Click on the link below for information about how and where to send a soil sample.
http://aggieturf.tamu.edu/aggieturf2/soilsample/soilsample1.html

Q:  My St. Augustine grass is looking really bad.

A:  St. Augustine has been beset by problems this year.  Last year’s extreme cold was very stressful, and the extreme heat of summer combined with high humidity added more stress.  The cold followed by heat and humidity is the perfect environment for fungi.  Watch for gray leaf spot which shows up as brown lesions on the leaf. To reduce the severity of gray leaf spot, avoid applications of soluble nitrogen fertilizers on moderately shaded lawns during summer months.  Herbicide applications which may weaken St. Augustinegrass should also be avoided on shaded lawns. Apply water to the lawn in early morning only when water is needed. Avoid late afternoon and evening watering which keeps the leaf surface moist for long periods. Also, catch grass clippings in lawns where gray leaf spot is a problem.

Also watch for brown patch, which forms circular brown patches.  If you want a definite diagnosis, you can send a sample to the Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab.  For a fee, they will diagnose your ailing plants.  http://plantclinic.tamu.edu/

Q:  Feral hogs rooted up my lawn and left a huge muddy mess.  Can I overseed now with rye (November)?

A:  You can, although overseeding is not usually recommended due to its competition with the warm season grass the following spring/summer.  In your case, it might be best to control erosion during the winter. The option, although expensive, would be to sod with the grass of your choice.

Fruits/Vegetables

Q:  Can I save vegetable seeds for next year?
A:  This is a fairly complicated question.   Hybrid vegetable seeds will not reproduce as you might expect.  If you are determined to save seeds, designate a few plants to allow to seed and take precautions to be certain they are not cross-pollinated.   Follow the link to read a full discussion of hybrid seeds, which seeds you can save, and how to prepare them.
http://aggiehorticulture.tamu.edu/Plantanswers/vegetables/seed.html

Q:  Will my spring tomatoes produce more fruit in the fall?

A:  It is possible if you have indeterminate tomatoes (they continue to grow taller throughout the season) that are still healthy.  Most of the determinates will shrivel and die during the summer.

Q:  Can I locate my vegetable garden over the septic leach field?

A:  It is possible but probably not advisable.  This is a quote from the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service:  “Sometimes the ideal place to put a vegetable garden seems to be over the leach field, raising the question of bacterial and viral contamination from the effluent. Soils vary a great deal in their ability to filter viruses and bacteria. Clay soils work best, eliminating bacteria within a few inches of the drain trenches, but sandy soils may allow bacterial movement for several feet.  A properly operating system will not contaminate the soil with disease-causing organisms, but it is very difficult to determine if a field is operating just as it should. If at all possible, use your septic drain field for ornamentals and plant your vegetables elsewhere. If you must plant vegetables, take the following precautions. Do not plant root crops over drain lines.  Leafy vegetables could be contaminated by rain splashing soil onto the plant, so either mulch them to eliminate splashing or don’t grow them. Fruiting crops are probably safe; train any vining ones such as cucumbers or tomatoes onto a support so that the fruit is off the ground. Thoroughly wash any produce from the garden before eating it.  Do not construct raised beds over the field; they might inhibit evaporation of moisture.”

Q:  What is wrong with my grapes?

A.  Under the microscope, we found larva that looked like this picture.  Your grapes have grape berry moth. For control, follow this link.  http://winegrapes.tamu.edu/grow/berrymoth.html

Q:  What kind of black-eyed peas do well in Denton County?

A:  Blackeye #5, Colossus, Mississippi Silver, Pink Eye purple hull, Texas Pinkeye, or Zipper Cream.  For other vegetable/fruit recommendations, visit this site.

Q: What variety of peach and pecan trees do well here?

A: PEACHES are not the easiest fruit to grow in Denton County, but these are the recommended varieties: Springgold, Bicentennial, Sentinel, Harvester, Ranger, Redglobe, Fire Prince, and many others. For more information, go to this site:

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/homefruit/stone/stone.html

It is very difficult to grow peaches organically. A well-timed spray schedule will increase your chances of getting good fruit.  This link will give instructions and timing: http://insects.tamu.edu/extension/bulletins/b-5041.html

PECANS: Sioux, Choctaw, Wichita, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Forkert, Cape Fear, Kiowa, Caddo. For more information regarding growing pecan trees, including pruning, fertilizing, pests and diseases, go here:

http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/homefruit/pecan/pecan.html

Trees

Q:  My tree has what looks like a large mushroom about midway up the trunk.  Should I cut it off?

A:  Unfortunately, shelf mushrooms can be indicative of internal rot.  Call a certified arborist to diagnose the tree and advise whether the tree might be a danger to your home.  Find an arborist in your area by going to http://isa-arbor.org/faca/findArborist.aspx You can input your zip code to find an arborist in your area.

Q:  Can you tell me how to plant a tree properly?

A: Dig a hole about 2-3 times the diameter of the root ball.  It is not necessary to amend the soil.  If you are planting a container-grown tree, look at the roots to be sure they are not girdling the container.  If they are, gently pull them free and spread them into the hole so that they will grow downward rather than in a circle.  Plant the tree at the same level it was in the pot. If the tree is balled and burlapped, remove all ties and as much burlap as possible.  You do not want anything to constrict the growth of the roots. Fill the hole with the same soil you removed. Be sure not to plant the tree too deeply. The top of the flare of the roots should be visible.  Keep grass at least 2-3 feet from the tree trunk so that the tree does not have to compete with the grass for water and nutrients. Add about 2-3 inches of mulch, but keep it about a foot from the trunk.  Remember, mulch is to moderate soil temperature and retard weeds.  Regardless of what you see when you’re driving around town, mulch should never be placed against the trunk of the tree. The tree needs to breathe. Most trees do not need to be staked, but if you do stake it, leave the stakes no longer than one year.  For a wonderful illustration of a properly planted tree, follow this link: Tree Planting

Q:  When should I prune my peach tree?

A:  If you can grow peaches in Denton County, you are a very good gardener. But if you are one of the lucky ones, there are specific instructions for pruning.  Read the whole article here:  Pruning peach tree

Q:  When can I transplant a tree?

A:  It is best for the tree if you wait until it is completely dormant (winter).  If you are digging it up, be sure to get at least 1/2 the root area, or the tree will likely not survive.  The roots extend at least as far as the drip line and sometimes much farther.  Yes, that is a lot of digging.  If the tree is several years old, the chances of survival are small because it is almost impossible to save enough roots for the tree to overcome transplant shock.  Planting a small tree is a better idea.

Q:  Twigs are falling off my pecan tree.  What is causing this?

 

A:  This is damage from a twig girdler.  Note the defined edge that has been eaten.   The female lays an egg in the tip of the twig, chews the twig until it is damaged enough to die and fall off with the wind.  Then the larva emerges to find a safe place underground to finish developing.  For more information and control measures, visit this site.

Q:  What walnut varieties are recommended for North Texas?

A:  Thomas or Carpathian.

Water

Q:  My well water is salty, and I am having trouble growing plants.  What can I do?

A:  First, look for salt-tolerant plants.  Look at the list of Salt Tolerant Plants for the Texas Coast to get some ideas.  Buy plants that require little water once they are established.  A good place to start is with native plants.  The goal is to get the plant established and then give it water as seldom as possible.  Learn to appreciate the occasional deluge from tropical storms as this can help leach salts from the soil.  You might also consider installing a rainwater harvesting system to use on your most prized plants that are salt-sensitive.  Check out our Rainwater Harvesting page for more information.

Insects

Q:  My yuccas are being destroyed by tiny bugs with a red head.  What are they? Yucca bug

Yucca bug

A:  Those are yucca bugs. Pesticide applications should target nymphs because eggs are not affected. Determine this stage by looking for spiny nymphs near egg masses on leaf undersides and monitoring to determine egg hatch. Short residual materials, like soaps, oils, or pyrethrins, can be effective on nymphs if coverage is adequate. Systemic pesticides such as Orthene (Acephate) or Merit (imidacloprid) are also very effective. Topical foliar applied materials can also provide effective control. (ppdl.purdue.edu)

Q:  There is black stuff on my trees and many of my plants.  It looks like mold.

A:  It probably is sooty mold. This mold often grows on the honeydew (a sugary liquid waste) of insects such as aphids.  Look for evidence of aphids on the back side of leaves.  To the naked eye, they usually appear as tiny white dots.

Aphids

Q:  What walnut varieties are recommended for North Texas?

A:  Thomas or Carpathian.

Fungus

Q:  There is something that looks like vomit on my begonias.

A.  That is a harmless slime mold, but it does look like a dog barfed in the flower bed.  You can ignore or hose it away.  If you kick it, you will likely get the spores all over your shoes.

Slime mold

Compost

Q: (March 2011) I used an herbicide on grass that I used to make hay for my horse. I have composted the horse manure for about six months. Is it safe to use the compost?

A: It depends what herbicide you used. Some herbicides may persist in manure for many months or even years. There is a simple bioassay that homeowners can conduct to find out if their compost is safe. Directions and more information is in the following article from North Carolina State University.

http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/fletcher/programs/ncorganic/special-pubs/herbicide_carryover.pdf